センサーとバッテリー: 小さくても十分か?(Sensors and Batteries: Never Small Enough?)

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2024-03-26 パシフィック・ノースウェスト国立研究所(PNNL)

微小センサーとマイクロバッテリーは、医療、環境、産業、個人用電子機器などのさまざまな分野で重要な役割を果たしており、PNNLの研究者たちはこれらの技術の進化に取り組んできた。最新の論文では、新素材の採用や次世代のセンサー技術について検討され、PNNLは微小バッテリー技術の国内製造を支援し、野生動物の追跡技術などの分野で重要な進展を達成している。

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次世代小型センサーの電源供給と実装のための機能性材料 Functional materials for powering and implementing next-generation miniature sensors

Bingbin Wu, Habilou Ouro-Koura, Shao-Hao Lu, Huidong Li, Xueju Wang, Jie Xiao, Zhiqun Daniel Deng
Materials Today  Available online:22 September 2023
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2023.09.001

Abstract

The advent of the Internet of Things and smart applications such as smart cities, smart health care, and smart electronics will require the use of a vast array of sensors. Sensors are a key part of the revolution in interconnected devices. The growing need for sensing, monitoring, and collecting data at scales from small to large will help, for example, prevent future pandemics, elucidate climate change, optimize industrial processes, and train machine learning models. Recent progress in materials science, micro/nano technologies, and integrated circuits has made it possible to reduce the size and cost of sensors while integrating them into more complex machines, ranging from wearable/implantable devices to onboard laboratories for planetary exploration rovers. However, the small dimensions of miniature sensors present some challenges, including power supply, active sensing materials, and material flexibility. In this article, we review microbatteries to power miniature sensors. We discuss materials and architectures for microbatteries and their fabrication methods. We also discuss energy harvesting materials for self-powered miniature sensors. We review in detail advanced materials for active sensing, including organic, inorganic, and composite materials with emphasis on wearable/implantable sensors targeted at humans and animals. In addition, flexible electronics as well as substrates and encapsulation materials and their integration are reviewed. Finally, future perspectives and challenges of these functional materials for next-generation miniature sensors are highlighted.

Graphical abstract

Enabling the future of interconnected devices through miniature sensors and functional materials.

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