今後、より速く発達し、より湿潤なハリケーンが発生する可能性があります。(Faster-developing, Wetter Hurricanes To Come)

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気候変動は、ハリケーンが急速に速く激化し、米国大西洋岸やその他の海岸線に湿潤な暴風雨をもたらす舞台となる Climate change sets the stage for hurricanes to rapidly intensify faster, bringing wetter storms to the U.S. Atlantic Coast and other coastlines

2022-10-17 アメリカ・パシフィック・ノースウェスト国立研究所(PNNL)

研究者は、新しい研究の中で、米国の大西洋岸が急速に強まるハリケーンの温床になりつつあることを明らかにした。この新しい研究では、気候変動が根本的な原因となって、より深刻な暴風雨をもたらす環境条件に後押しされ、すでにハリケーンに襲われている海岸線付近でハリケーンがより湿潤になり、より速く強まることが判明した。
過去40年間のハリケーンの活動状況とそれを形成する条件を示すデータを調べたところ、米国の大西洋岸付近でハリケーンが強化される割合は、1979年以降上昇していることがわかった。
海水温の上昇や大気中の湿度の上昇など、ハリケーンに適した条件が揃うと、ハリケーンは急速に発達し、時には短時間のうちに複数のカテゴリーに分類されることもある。
このようなハリケーンは、その発生速度が速いため、予測コミュニティが提供する最高のツールによる予測から外れてしまうことがある。

<関連情報>

米国大西洋岸付近で増加するハリケーン強度率 Increasing Hurricane Intensification Rate Near the US Atlantic Coast

Karthik Balaguru,Gregory R. Foltz,L. Ruby Leung,Wenwei Xu,Dongmin Kim,Hosmay Lopez,Robert West
Geophysical Research Letters  Published: 17 October 2022
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1029/2022GL099793

Details are in the caption following the image

Abstract

Hurricanes often cause severe damage and loss of life, and storms that intensify close to the coast pose a particularly serious threat. While changes in hurricane intensification and environment have been examined at basin scales previously, near-coastal changes have not been adequately explored. In this study, we address this using a suite of observations and climate model simulations. Over the 40-year period of 1979–2018, the mean 24-hr hurricane intensification rate increased by ∼1.2 kt 6-hr−1 near the US Atlantic coast. However, a significant increase in intensification did not occur near the Gulf coast over the same period. The enhanced hurricane intensification along the Atlantic coast is consistent with an increasingly favorable dynamic and thermodynamic environment there, which is well simulated by climate models over the historical period. Further, multi-model projections suggest a continued enhancement of the storm environment and hurricane intensification near the Atlantic coast in the future.

Key Points

  • Hurricane intensification rate has significantly increased near the US Atlantic coast over the last 40 years
  • Climate models accurately simulate the observed trends with an enhanced environment conducive for hurricanes
  • Multi-model projections suggest that the environment will increasingly favor hurricane intensification near the Atlantic coast

Plain Language Summary

While hurricanes pose a significant socioeconomic threat in general, those that intensify close to the coast are particularly challenging for operational forecasters and decision makers. Past studies examined basin-scale changes in hurricane intensification and the large-scale environment in the Atlantic. However, near-coastal changes in hurricane intensification have not been extensively studied. Herein, we address this using a combination of observations and numerical model simulations. Analysis of hurricane track data for the period 1979–2018 indicates that the mean hurricane intensification rate has increased significantly near the Atlantic coast. In contrast, significant increases in nearshore hurricane intensification are not seen for the Gulf coast. Observed changes in the ambient storm environment over the same period, which are in good agreement with these changes in hurricane intensification, are well reproduced by climate models. Finally, models project a continued enhancement of the hurricane environment near the Atlantic coast in the future. These results are well supported by direct simulation of hurricanes in high-resolution climate models.

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1702地球物理及び地球化学
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