雲の種を形成する3つの化学物質(Chemical triad forms seeds for clouds)

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対流圏上部における硝酸、硫酸およびアンモニアによる相乗的粒子生成の研究 Synergistic particle formation in the upper troposphere by nitric acid, sulfuric acid and ammonia

2022-05-18 マックス・プランク研究所

マックス・プランク化学研究所やキプロス研究所気候大気研究センター(Care-C)の研究者を含む国際研究チームは、Cern雲室での実験とコンピュータモデリングを組み合わせることにより、対流圏上部での粒子の形成と成長に関する新しいメカニズムを発見しました。硝酸、硫酸、アンモニア蒸気の予想外の相乗効果により、粒子が驚くほど速く形成され、アンモニアの利用可能性に依存することがわかりました。このプロセスは、農業由来のアンモニアが豊富に存在するアジアのモンスーン地域における新しい粒子の形成を支配している可能性がある。

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HNO3-H2SO4-NH3の相乗効果による上部対流圏粒子形成の研究 Synergistic HNO3–H2SO4–NH3 upper tropospheric particle formation

Mingyi Wang,Mao Xiao,Barbara Bertozzi,Guillaume Marie,Birte Rörup,Benjamin Schulze,Roman Bardakov,Xu-Cheng He,Jiali Shen,Wiebke Scholz,Ruby Marten,Lubna Dada,Rima Baalbaki,Brandon Lopez,Houssni Lamkaddam,Hanna E. Manninen,António Amorim,Farnoush Ataei,Pia Bogert,Zoé Brasseur,Lucía Caudillo,Louis-Philippe De Menezes,Jonathan Duplissy,Annica M. L. Ekman,Henning Finkenzeller,Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo,Manuel Granzin,Roberto Guida,Martin Heinritzi,Victoria Hofbauer,Kristina Höhler,Kimmo Korhonen,Jordan E. Krechmer,Andreas Kürten,Katrianne Lehtipalo,Naser G. A. Mahfouz,Vladimir Makhmutov,Dario Massabò,Serge Mathot,Roy L. Mauldin,Bernhard Mentler,Tatjana Müller,Antti Onnela,Tuukka Petäjä,Maxim Philippov,Ana A. Piedehierro,Andrea Pozzer,Ananth Ranjithkumar,Meredith Schervish,Siegfried Schobesberger,Mario Simon,Yuri Stozhkov,António Tomé,Nsikanabasi Silas Umo,Franziska Vogel,Robert Wagner,Dongyu S. Wang,Stefan K. Weber,André Welti,Yusheng Wu,Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek,Mikko Sipilä,Paul M. Winkler,Armin Hansel,Urs Baltensperger,Markku Kulmala,Richard C. Flagan,Joachim Curtius,Ilona Riipinen,Hamish Gordon,Jos Lelieveld,Imad El-Haddad,Rainer Volkamer,Douglas R. Worsnop,Theodoros Christoudias,Jasper Kirkby,Ottmar Möhler & Neil M. Donahue
Nature  Published:18 May 2022
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04605-4

figure 1

Abstract

New particle formation in the upper free troposphere is a major global source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)1,2,3,4. However, the precursor vapours that drive the process are not well understood. With experiments performed under upper tropospheric conditions in the CERN CLOUD chamber, we show that nitric acid, sulfuric acid and ammonia form particles synergistically, at rates that are orders of magnitude faster than those from any two of the three components. The importance of this mechanism depends on the availability of ammonia, which was previously thought to be efficiently scavenged by cloud droplets during convection. However, surprisingly high concentrations of ammonia and ammonium nitrate have recently been observed in the upper troposphere over the Asian monsoon region5,6. Once particles have formed, co-condensation of ammonia and abundant nitric acid alone is sufficient to drive rapid growth to CCN sizes with only trace sulfate. Moreover, our measurements show that these CCN are also highly efficient ice nucleating particles—comparable to desert dust. Our model simulations confirm that ammonia is efficiently convected aloft during the Asian monsoon, driving rapid, multi-acid HNO3–H2SO4–NH3 nucleation in the upper troposphere and producing ice nucleating particles that spread across the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere.

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1702地球物理及び地球化学
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