山火事後の干ばつが外来種を増やすという研究結果(Study finds drought fuels invasive species after wildfires)

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2024-02-28 カリフォルニア大学校アーバイン校(UCI)

カリフォルニア大学アーバイン校の研究者が、エコロジー学誌に発表した研究で、南カリフォルニアの沿岸セージスクラブ生態系における干ばつ、山火事、外来種の関係を明らかにした。干ばつは山火事の激しさを軽減し、外来種の侵入を促進し、生態系に重大な影響を与えることが示された。この研究は、気候変動、山火事ダイナミクス、植物群集の変化の相互関係を明らかにし、従来の火災管理手法の再評価と気候変動対策の緊急性を強調している。

<関連情報>

長期的な干ばつは、山火事の深刻さを軽減することにより、外来種を促進する Long-term drought promotes invasive species by reducing wildfire severity

Sarah Kimball, Jessica Rath, Julie E. Coffey, Moises R. Perea-Vega, Matthew Walsh, Nicole M. Fiore, Priscilla M. Ta, Katharina T. Schmidt, Michael L. Goulden, Steven D. Allison
Ecology  Published: 21 February 2024
DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.4265

Details are in the caption following the image

Abstract

Anthropogenic climate change has increased the frequency of drought, wildfire, and invasions of non-native species. Although high-severity fires linked to drought can inhibit recovery of native vegetation in forested ecosystems, it remains unclear how drought impacts the recovery of other plant communities following wildfire. We leveraged an existing rainfall manipulation experiment to test the hypothesis that reduced precipitation, fuel load, and fire severity convert plant community composition from native shrubs to invasive grasses in a Southern California coastal sage scrub system. We measured community composition before and after the 2020 Silverado wildfire in plots with three rainfall treatments. Drought reduced fuel load and vegetation cover, which reduced fire severity. Native shrubs had greater prefire cover in added water plots compared to reduced water plots. Native cover was lower and invasive cover was higher in postfire reduced water plots compared to postfire added and ambient water plots. Our results demonstrate the importance of fuel load on fire severity and plant community composition on an ecosystem scale. Management should focus on reducing fire frequency and removing invasive species to maintain the resilience of coastal sage scrub communities facing drought. In these communities, controlled burns are not recommended as they promote invasive plants.

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