ステレオビジョンと深層畳み込みニューラルネットワークを用いたトウモロコシ植物のフィールドベースロボットによる葉角検出と特性評価 Field-based robotic leaf angle detection and characterization of maize plants using stereo vision and deep convolutional neural networks
Lirong Xiang, Jingyao Gai, Yin Bao, Jianming Yu, Patrick S. Schnable, Lie Tang
Journal of Field Robotics Published: 27 February 2023
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the three major cereal crops in the world. Leaf angle is an important architectural trait of crops due to its substantial role in light interception by the canopy and hence photosynthetic efficiency. Traditionally, leaf angle has been measured using a protractor, a process that is both slow and laborious. Efficiently measuring leaf angle under field conditions via imaging is challenging due to leaf density in the canopy and the resulting occlusions. However, advances in imaging technologies and machine learning have provided new tools for image acquisition and analysis that could be used to characterize leaf angle using three-dimensional (3D) models of field-grown plants. In this study, PhenoBot 3.0, a robotic vehicle designed to traverse between pairs of agronomically spaced rows of crops, was equipped with multiple tiers of PhenoStereo cameras to capture side-view images of maize plants in the field. PhenoStereo is a customized stereo camera module with integrated strobe lighting for high-speed stereoscopic image acquisition under variable outdoor lighting conditions. An automated image processing pipeline (AngleNet) was developed to measure leaf angles of nonoccluded leaves. In this pipeline, a novel representation form of leaf angle as a triplet of keypoints was proposed. The pipeline employs convolutional neural networks to detect each leaf angle in two-dimensional images and 3D modeling approaches to extract quantitative data from reconstructed models. Satisfactory accuracies in terms of correlation coefficient (r) and mean absolute error (MAE) were achieved for leaf angle ( γ＞0.87,MAE＜5。)and internode heights (γ＞0.99,MAE＜3.5㎝). Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using stereo vision to investigate the distribution of leaf angles in maize under field conditions. The proposed system is an efficient alternative to traditional leaf angle phenotyping and thus could accelerate breeding for improved plant architecture.